Eyelid Infectious Problems Due To Blepharitis and Overpopulation of Demodex Mites on The Face
The Demodex mite is the cause of blepharitis of the eyelid, not to mention a whole host of other skin and medical problems. They tend to cause the most trouble when they begin to overpopulate. There is still much controversy about the role of this mite in many of these pathologies, but with many of them, there is some form of link between the mite and the condition in question. It is mostly agreed within the medical community that blepharitis often has a strong link with the Demodex mite. In the most recent studies the incidence of Demodex in patients with chronic blepharitis was very high (0.69 a / p) in comparison with the control group. This goes hand in hand with current theories that the Demodex mites cause blepharitis in humans.
Although not all patients with chronic blepharitis have an overpopulation of mites, patients with high levels of infestation to which he applied the specific treatment for Demodex (ointment with mercury oxide and ether 2%) had no symptoms or signs blepharitis at 6 months. People who used a similar treatment but then discontinued treatment because of intolerance or toxicity problems were still found to have blepharitis, even though they did not technically have an overpopulation of mites anymore. There are also people who have an overpopulation of Demodex mites within their eyelash follicles and yet have no symptoms of blepharitis.
Blepharitis is a very common chronic disease in ophthalmology practice. The Demodex mites nature and possible pathologies (associated multi-factorial treatment) are quite complex. It seems that this mite has done quite a bit of evolving to become the troubling parasite that it is. With that said, there are over 60 species of demodcx mite, but there are only two of those species that affects humans.
There are various treatments based on eyelid cleaning, antibiotic ointments with or without the addition of steroids, more systemic antibiotics in patients with blepharitis but without Demodex.
When it is confirmed that there is an overpopulation of demodex mites, they will often use an oxide ointment of mercury to 2% in application to the lid margins. The toxicity may appear after application is one of the disadvantages of specific treatment for Demodex since the application has to be very careful to avoid contact with the mucous membrane and eye ointment should be removed the next morning with careful lid hygiene.
To prevent recurrence of symptoms it is advised to continue with weekly applications of ether medication, after completing treatment with the ointment of mercury for two months and maintain proper hygiene in the eyelids.
For patients who have allergic reactions or toxic reaction mercury, some authors/medical professionals recommend the application of pilocarpine gel 4%, although the application must be limited to the eyelid margins to avoid the side effects of this drug. No one knows exactly what effect it has on the mites, but is believed to exert a toxic action due to its muscarinic action impeding mobility and breath of these parasites.
Other authors/medical professionals propose the use of topical metronidazole 2% in cases of allergy to mercury, but it is unclear what is the mechanism by which this drug relieves symptoms and reduces the number of mites in chronic Demodex blepharitis.